What’s the significance of using adipose tissue? What is the difference between adipose tissue and bone marrow?
Bone marrow aspirate contains mostly hematopoietic cells (blood cells, CD45+), which are not useful for repairing stromal or vascular tissues. A very small proportion (<0.1%) of the cells in bone marrow aspirate are mesenchymal stem cells — which are capable of stromal and vascular tissue repair/regeneration. But because of the small quantity of bone marrow harvest and the very low proportion of mesenchymal cells, bone marrow harvest requires culturing to isolate and expand the numbers of mesenchymal stem cells to support a regenerative therapeutic treatment and to eliminate the hematopoietic cell fraction in the harvest. Adipose tissue, by comparison, is a far richer source of nucleated stromal cells, having typically 500 times more nucleated stromal cells (not blood cells) per cc of harvest than bone marrow aspirate. No culturing is needed when using adipose as the harvest tissue because adipose can produce a therapeutic dose of nucleated stromal cells from a small tissue sample.